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don bosco e i giovani

Don Bosco riuscì pian piano a far nascere un piccolo oratorio dove radunare i propri ragazzi, che erano in buona parte vagabondi e privi di dimora. Qui di seguito una raccolta delle più belle e famose frasi di Don Bosco sui giovani e per i giovani che ne sottolineano l’amore e i principi educativi. Preghiera a Don Bosco per le famiglie e i giovani San Giovanni Bosco, nella tua vita hai tanto pregato e operato per il bene della gioventù: guarda ai pericoli e alle molte difficoltà che ancora oggi stanno vivendo i nostri giovani ed intercedi per loro presso il Padre affinché siano sempre custoditi nel Suo Amore e camminino sulla via del vero bene. A formal complaint was lodged against them with the municipality. Fate conto che quanto io sono, sono tutto per voi. The Oratorio was not simply a charitable institution, and its activities were not limited to Sundays. John Bosco was first called to be chaplain of the Rifugio ("Refuge"), a girls' boarding school founded in Turin by the Marchioness Giulia di Barolo. From January to May 1855, the king's mother (age 54), wife (32), newborn son (Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Genoa; nearly four months old), and his only brother (32) all died. Twice he tried to provide lodgings in his house. For other uses, see, "St John Bosco" redirects here. He decided it was necessary to try another form of apostolate, and he began to meet the boys where they worked and gathered in shops and marketplaces. [28], Bosco and his oratory moved around town for a number of years; he was turned out of several places in succession. In the canonization process, testimony was heard about how he went around Gastaldi to get some of his men ordained and about their lack of academic preparation and ecclesiastical decorum. [citation needed], In the years Don Bosco had spent running his oratory and giving spiritual and practical instruction to the boys he had housed there, he relied on a different approach on education and general instruction which he believed to be superior to traditional educational methods which he labelled as a Repressive System of Education. [24] Although Bosco could pursue some studies by himself, he was not able to attend school for two more years. Having to face life by himself at such a young age may have developed his later sympathies to help abandoned boys. But in spite of all the efforts and contracts, the situation of the apprentices of the time remained difficult. Il. [47] Catholic stage magicians who practice gospel magic venerate Bosco by offering free magic shows to underprivileged children on his feast day.[47]. Se non ti metti a praticar l’umiltà, tu perdi la più bella delle virtù. I giovani e il contagio da jihad del 23 ottobre 2014 . On 18 April 1869, one year after the construction of the Basilica of Mary Help of Christians in Turin, Don Bosco established the Association of Mary Help of Christians (ADMA) connecting it with commitments easily fulfilled by most common people, to the spirituality and the mission of the Salesian Congregation (CG 24 SDB, 1996, NR. Per molti altri titoli questo Santo merita la … "[19], John Bosco, when he was ten years old at the festive oratory, started watching his classmates attitudes and in every fight he was the referee. La carità non conosce diversità di razze, né distanza di luoghi. Nelle camerette, protette dalle certezze di un Occidente che lavora all’integrazione, di rosa e azzurro sono rimaste solo le pareti. Bosco was the subject of the 1935 biopic Don Bosco, directed by Goffredo Alessandrini. After his ordination, Bosco himself would have become a missionary had not his director, Joseph Cafasso, opposed the idea. There were many volunteers. [9] Together with Maria Domenica Mazzarello, he founded the Institute of the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians, a religious congregation of nuns dedicated to the care and education of poor girls. Oltre la scuola regolare, è necessario impegnarli in altro: in lezioni di musica, di canto e di declamazione. San Giovanni Bosco diede una casa ai giovani di strada. He and "Mamma Margherita" began taking in orphans. The king's family suffered a number of deaths in a short period. It reflected the effects of industrialization and urbanization: numerous poor families lived in the slums of the city, having come from the countryside in search of a better life. Impegno e serietà nel lavoro e nello studio vengono sempre premiate He was twenty-six years old.[2]. Il SYM è stato caratterizzato da spettacoli e celebrazioni in varie lingue, prevalentemente inglese, spagnolo e italiano. Institute of the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians, Basilica of Mary Help of Christians in Turin, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. John Bosco (Don Bosco)", "ADMA - Association Mary Help of Christians, Torino-Valdocco | 16", "St. John Bosco - Patron Saint of Young People and Editors / Publishers | Christian Apostles.com", "Magician priest wants patron saint of magic", "The Salesian Preventive System of St. John Bosco (Don Bosco) (Educational Philosophy of Don Bosco - Don Bosco's Way, Style, Approach, Method, System, etc... of Educating and Accompanying Young People Today)", "The "Preventive System": Walking Alongside", "Magicians Want Don Bosco Declared Their Patron", "Salesians of Don Bosco Official Website", "Saint John Bosco: Modern Apostle of Youth", Congregation of Saint Michael the Archangel, Sexual abuse scandal in the Salesian order, Daughters of Mary Help of Christians Siu Ming Catholic Secondary School, Don Bosco High & Technical School, Liluah, Don Bosco Higher Secondary School, Dimapur, Saint Francis Central Coast Catholic High School, St. Anthony's Higher Secondary School, Shillong, St. Mary's Anglo-Indian Higher Secondary School, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Bosco&oldid=999742427, Founders of Catholic religious communities, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles needing additional references from March 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Historical notes on the miracle of the Blessed Sacrament at Turin, A dispute between a lawyer and a Protestant minister, Notes on the life of the youth, Luigi Comollo, A collection of strange contemporary happenings, The six Sundays in honour of St Aloysius Gonzaga, An easy method of learning Sacred History, Lives of the Sovereign Pontiffs, Linus, Cletus and Clement, Lives of the Sovereign Pontiffs, Anacletus, Evaristus and Alexander I, Lives of the Sovereign Pontiffs, Sixtus, Telesphorus and Hyginus, Lives of the Sovereign Pontiffs, Anicetus, Soter, Eleutherus, Victor and Zephirinus, (The month of May, consecrated to Mary Immaculate, Life of the Sovereign Pontiff, Callistus I, Lives of the Sovereign Pontiffs, Pontian, Anterus and Fabian, The persecution of Decius and the pontificate of St Cornelius I, Lives of the Sovereign Pontiffs, St Lucian I and St Stephen I, The pontificate of St Sixtus II and the glories of St Laurence, The pontificates of St Felix I and St Eutichian, The new charm of an old soldier of Napoleon, Historical notes on BI. Documenta anche la rete vastissima delle relazioni da lui intessute. The ADMA was founded to promote the veneration of the Most Holy Sacrament and Mary Help of Christians (Don Bosco, Association of the Devotees of Mary Help of Christians, San Benigno Canavese, 1890, page 33). 3 a) L'importanza storica di don Bosco è da rintracciarsi, prima che nelle “opere” per i giovani apprendisti relativamente originali, nella percezione intellettuale ed emotiva (e nella capacità di comunicarla a larghe schiere di persone) della portata universale e sociale del problema della gioventù, in particolare, di cui non ci si occupava o ci si occupava male. Don Bosco, web La vocazione. Questo ripeteva don Bosco ai suoi collaboratori. I ragazzi, se non li occupiamo noi, si occuperanno da soli e certamente in idee e cose non buone. [11][12] The Bulletin has remained in continuous publication, and is currently published in 50 different editions and 30 languages. In mezzo a grandi difficoltà don Bosco elabora il suo personale modo di relazionarsi con i giovani fatto di ragione, religione ed amorevolezza.. L’impegno educativo profuso da don Bosco nell’educare i giovani fu costante e profondo, ma non trionfale come lo descrive una … È cosa sperimentata che i più validi sostegni dei giovani sono il sacramento della confessione e della comunione. [26] John's mother, Margherita, managed to earn enough money to finance his education. The Salesian Congregation was divided into priests, seminarians and "coadjutors" (the lay brothers). Si leggevano infatti nomi di città che andavano da una parte all’altra del mondo. Negotiations started after Archbishop Aneiros of Buenos Aires had indicated that he would be glad to receive the Salesians. [30][31] While Rattazzi was pushing a bill through the Sardinian legislature to suppress religious orders, he advised Bosco on how to get around the law. For Don Bosco, it became his permanent occupation. He nevertheless eagerly read the Italian edition of the Annals of the Propagation of the Faith and used this magazine to illustrate his Cattolico Provveduto (1853) and his Month of May booklets (1858). [19] Bosco apparently saw a multitude of very poor boys who play and blaspheme, and a man, who "appeared, nobly attired, with a manly and imposing bearing". Così la loro attività è mantenuta in utile esercizio. The Salesians, Daughters and Cooperators gave supportive testimonies. The group was evicted. [40] It espoused the values of reason, Religion, and loving kindness with a goal of producing 'good Christians and honest citizens'. [39] Upon his return to Turin, don Bosco wrote down the address as a polished essay under the title The Preventive System in the Education of the Youth which was published in 1877, which he included in the initial draft of the Rule for the Salesian Order. In 1854, when the Kingdom of Sardinia was about to pass a law suppressing monastic orders and confiscating ecclesiastical properties, Bosco reported a series of dreams about "great funerals at court", referring to politicians or members of the Savoy court. This was the nucleus of the Salesians, the religious order that would carry on his work. Pius XI beatified Bosco on 2 June 1929, and canonized him on Easter Sunday (1 April) of 1934, when he was given the title of "Father and Teacher of Youth". Le 25 più belle frasi di Don Bosco sui Giovani e per i Giovani There is a technical college in Mandaluyong City, Philippines, that is named for him. His two most well-known biographies were on his mentor Joseph Cafasso[44] and one of his student, Dominic Savio, which would later be instrumental in his canonization.[45]. Giovanni Melchiorre Bosco, conosciuto da tutti semplicemente come Don Bosco, è stato uno dei padri e maestri spirituali per tanti giovani del XIX e XX secolo. Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed ), memorial page for Robert E Bosco (7 Sep 1917–16 Jun 1994), Find a Grave Memorial no. L’oratorio di don Bosco rifugio e cura di giorni difficili e incerti. Presento una raccolta delle frasi più belle di Don Bosco. I giovani, diceva Don Bosco, bisogna tenerli sempre occupati. Dite ai giovani che li aspetto tutti in Paradiso. Don Bosco, amico e maestro di giovani (e Papi) La sua figura appassiona perché ha saputo misurarsi con successo con le miserie umane e spirituali del suo tempo, dando ricette ancora valide. [22] The money he needed to prepare all the shows was taken from selling the birds he hunted and money his mother gave him because she trusted him. A request from Argentina, turned him towards the Indians of Patagonia, and a study of the people there convinced him that the country and its inhabitants were the ones he had seen in his dream. [11] This was the only attempt Don Bosco had at a systematic exposition of his educational system. These cartoons were not forgotten. In 1835 Bosco entered the seminary at Chieri, next to the Church of the Immacolata Concezione. [19] The man said to him: "You will have to win these friends of yours not with blows, but with gentleness and kindness. Amate ciò che amano i giovani, affinché essi amino ciò che amate voi. While working in Turin, where the population suffered many of the ill-effects of industrialization and urbanization, he dedicated his life to the betterment and education of street children, juvenile delinquents, and other disadvantaged youth. Qui venne subito a contatto con il disagio dei giovani della grande città industriale, i quali spesso erano sfruttati, abbandonati dai genitori, maltrattati dalla polizia e privati di luoghi di incontro positivi. Closure may have been prevented by orders from the king that Bosco was not to be disturbed. «L’educazione è cosa di cuore…» È nota l’espressione di san Giovanni Bosco (1815-1888): [1] «L’educazione è cosa di cuore e Dio solo ne è il padrone». Along came a band of missionaries, but they were all massacred. Among the first members were Michael Rua, John Cagliero (who later became a Cardinal), and John Baptist Francesia.[28]. Erano anni di carestia e “Mamma Margherita”, come sarà sempre chiamata dai Salesiani, dovette … [2] His childhood experiences are thought to have inspired him to become a priest. The church is located in Montreal, Canada, in the borough of Ville-Emard. CONSIGLI SPIRITUALI NELLE LETTERE DI DON BOSCO A RAGAZZI E GIOVANI. La prima felicità di un fanciullo è sapersi amato. Per molti altri titoli questo Santo merita la … When Bosco founded the Salesian Society, the thought of the missions still obsessed him, though he completely lacked the financial means at that time. Se non li occupiamo noi, si occuperanno da sé, e certamente in idee e cose non buone. Bosco established a network of organizations and centers to carry on his work. Basta che voi siate giovani perché io vi ami assai. Frasi sul Tempo e l’Amicizia: le 35 più belle (con immagini), Frasi sul Tempo e la Vita: le 65 più belle e immortali, Frasi sul Progresso: le 25 più belle (in inglese e italiano), Frasi sulle Rughe: le 25 più belle (in inglese e italiano), Le 125 più belle frasi sul Tempo che passa (con immagini), Frasi sul Domani: le 25 più belle (in inglese e italiano), La Vita è Breve: 100 frasi sulla brevità della nostra esistenza, Frasi sul Presente: le 50 più belle (in inglese e italiano), Frasi, Proverbi e Motti Latini sul Tempo: i 50 più belli (con traduzione), Frasi sulla Vecchiaia e sull’Età: le 75 più belle (in inglese e italiano), © Frasi Mania - Tutti i diritti riservati. S. Giovanni Bosco: coltivare l’arte di ascoltare | Korazym.org Non mai annoiare né obbligare i giovanetti alla frequenza dei santi sacramenti, ma porgere loro la comodità di approfittarne. Quando un giovanetto sa distinguere tra pane e pane, e palesa sufficiente istruzione, non si badi più all’età e venga il Sovrano Celeste a regnare in quell’anima benedetta. Don Bosco iniziò ad organizzare dei laboratori in cui i giovani potessero apprendere un mestiere e liberarsi dalla condizione di schiavitù alla quale erano costretti nei posti di lavoro. After begging unsuccessfully for work, Bosco ended up at the wine farm of Louis Moglia. Pope Pius XI had known Bosco and pushed the cause forward. At the time, being a priest was generally seen as a profession for the privileged classes, rather than farmers, although it was not unknown. He developed teaching methods based on love rather than punishment, a method that became known as the Salesian Preventive System.[8]. [24] Some biographers portray his older brother Antonio as the main obstacle for Bosco's ambition to study, as the brother protested that John was just "a farmer like us! In 1830 he met Joseph Cafasso, a young priest who identified some natural talent and supported his first schooling. In ognuno di questi ragazzi, anche il più disgraziato, v’è un punto accessibile al bene. Il suo impegno fu riconosciuto nel 1934, quando Papa Pio XI lo dichiarò santo. [2] She played a strong role in Bosco's formation and personality,[17] and was an early supporter of her son's ideals. [34][35], Opposition to Bosco and his work came from various quarters. Though Don Bosco was described as more of a man of action than a scholar,[42] he was an exceptional historian. Molto è stato elogiato San Giovanni Bosco – e quanto a ragione! Ha preso centinaia di giovani svantaggiati, educandoli e impiegando tutte le proprie energie per trasformarli in uomini che potessero servire la società. St. Giovanni Bosco is the patron saint of the capital of Brazil, Brasília, which he supposedly foresaw in a prophecy concerning an extraordinary new civilization which would flourish in Central Brazil. Compito di un educatore è trovare quella corda sensibile e farla vibrare. Si tenga lontano come la peste l’opinione di taluno che vorrebbe differire la prima comunione a un’età troppo inoltrata, quando per lo più il demonio ha preso possesso del cuore di un giovanetto a danno incalcolabile della sua innocenza. San Giovanni Bosco, fondatore dei padri salesiani, è considerato l’apostolo dei giovani.Originario di Asti, provincia in cui nacque nel 1815, presto don Bosco si trasferì a Torino. Si trattava di laboratori tenuti da professionisti, soprattutto artigiani, che insegnavano ai ragazzi la loro professione. Frequentò Pio IX e Leone XIII che lo stimavano tanto. In visiting the prisons, Don Bosco was disturbed to see so many boys from 12 to 18 years of age. Because of population growth and migration to the city, Bosco found the traditional methods of parish ministry inefficient. CONSIGLI SPIRITUALI NELLE LETTERE DI DON BOSCO A RAGAZZI E GIOVANI. John Bosco was born into a time of great shortage and famine in the Piedmontese countryside, following the devastation wrought by the Napoleonic wars and drought in 1817. He was anticlerical in his politics, but he saw some value in Bosco’s work. He had two older brothers, Antonio, and Giuseppe (1813–1862). È stato canonizzato da Papa Pio XI nel 1934. [35] His actions, which had been described by Italian historian Erberto Petoia as having "manifest blackmailing intentions",[36] ended only after the intervention of Prime Minister Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour. The older boys were scared of him because John Bosco knew their strengths and their weaknesses. Non ho altra mira che procurare il vostro vantaggio morale, intellettuale e fisico. Political cartoons from the 1860s and later showed him shaking money from the pockets of old ladies or going off to America for the same purpose. He found a religious order to keep the oratory going after its founder’s death. It seems the dream made a great impression on Bosco, because he tried hard to identify the men and the country of the dream – and for three years collected information about different countries. Quando vedo i giovani tutti occupati nel gioco son sicuro che il demonio ha un bel fare, ma non riesce a nulla. Chi sa di essere amato e chi è amato ottiene tutto, specialmente dai giovani. They were pavers, stone-cutters, masons, plasterers who came from far away places, he recalled in his brief Memoires. He did not give up. He developed teaching methods based on love rather than … He cared for their health, and demanded that they are given rest on feast days and that they are given an annual holiday. These are among the first contracts of apprenticeship to be found in Turin. Astonished, he witnessed an unexpected change when the fierce savages laid down their arms and listened to the missionaries. John Melchior Bosco (Italian: Giovanni Melchiorre Bosco; 16 August 1815[3] – 31 January 1888),[4][5][6] popularly known as Don Bosco [ˈdɔm ˈbɔsko, bo-][7], Italian for "Father", was an Italian Roman Catholic priest, educator, and writer of the 19th century. La corrispondenza di san Giovanni Bosco rispecchia la sua molteplice attività di promotore di opere educative e assistenziali, imprese editoriali e missionarie. Nationalist politicians (including some clergy) saw his several hundred young men as a recruiting ground for revolution. Confessatevi come se la vostra confessione fosse l’ultima della vita. Io per voi studio, per voi lavoro, per voi vivo, e per voi sono disposto anche a dare la vita. Dite ai giovani che li aspetto tutti in Paradiso. Rumors also circulated that the meetings conducted by the priest with his boys were dangerous; their recreation could be turned into a revolution against the government. "Don Bosco" redirects here. [29], Some of the boys helped by Don Bosco decided to do what he was doing, that is, to work in the service of abandoned boys. [29], In the archives of the Salesian Congregation is a contract of apprenticeship, dated November 1851; another one on stamped paper costing 40 cents, dated February 8, 1852; and others with later dates. At that time, the city of Turin had a population of 117,000 inhabitants. Tag: Congregazione Salesiana , Educazione , giovani , pedagogia , Valdocco Early biographers put this down to the growing influence of the Waldensians in opposition to Catholic clergy. A second group appeared, which Bosco at once recognized as Salesians. Lasciò dietro di sé un fulgido esempio che ancora oggi, a distanza di decenni e decenni, risplende per grazia ed umanità. (Frase pronunciata sul letto di morte). [43] He was also a skilled biographer. The Marquis de Cavour, chief of police in Turin, regarded the open-air catechisms as overtly political and a threat to the State, and was highly suspicious of Bosco's support for the powers of the papacy. Il vortice da spezzare. photo web source. Some of the boys did not have sleeping quarters and slept under bridges or in bleak public dormitories. A national almanac begun (1854), the 40 Dreams of St. John Bosco (critical edition published in 1977, originally published as a dream journal in 1855), The Preventive System in the Education of the Youth (1877), A Compendium of Italian History from the Fall of the Roman Empire (1881), Memoirs of the Oratory of Saint Francis de Sales (written between 1815-1855, published posthumously in 1989), The spiritual writings of Saint John Bosco (1984), Dreams, Visions and Prophecies of Don Bosco (1999), The Unpublished Don Bosco (compiled by Mario Balbi and published in 2005), This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 19:00. The Italian church St. Giovanni Bosco is named after Bosco. Frasi di Giovanni Bosco (36 frasi) | Citazioni e frasi celebri And this was the origin of the Salesian Congregation. Un legame mai reciso con i successori di Pietro. E chi ama ottiene tutto, specialmente dai giovani”. Adopting a way of evangelization that would not expose his missionaries to wild, "uncivilized" tribes, he proposed setting up bases in safe locations which missionary efforts were to be launched. He was determined to find a means to prevent them from ending up here. [14] He was the youngest son of Francesco Bosco (1784–1817) and Margherita Occhiena. Bosco claimed he had another dream[citation needed] where he was on a vast plain, inhabited by primitive peoples, who spent their time hunting or fighting among themselves or against soldiers in European uniforms. Dalla buona o cattiva educazione della gioventù dipende un buon o triste avvenire della società. [20], When traveling entertainers performed at a local feast in the nearby hills, John watched and studied the jugglers' tricks and the acrobats' secrets. In those contracts, Don Bosco touched on many sensitive issues. In May 1847, he gave shelter to a young boy from Valencia, in one of the three rooms he was renting in the slums of Valdocco, where he was living with his mother. In mezzo a grandi difficoltà don Bosco elabora il suo personale modo di relazionarsi con i giovani fatto di ragione, religione ed amorevolezza.. L’impegno educativo profuso da don Bosco nell’educare i giovani fu costante e profondo, ma non trionfale come lo descrive una … [46], While Bosco had been popularly known as the patron saint of illusionists, on 30 January 2002, Silvio Mantelli petitioned Pope John Paul II to formally declare Bosco the patron of stage magicians. [41], Though Don Bosco's written works were little known outside of his own Order and the subscribers of his Salesian Bulletin, which he founded on August 1877, he wrote frequently and voluminously. Date molto ai poveri se volete divenir ricchi. Employers used to beat the boys. On March 12, 1877, Bosco gave an opening address on the subject-matter of the systems of education during the day for the opening of the St. Peter's Youth Center in the new quarters of the Patronage de Saint Pierre in Nice, in which he first mentions the term 'Preventive System'. [10], In 1875, he began to publish the Salesian Bulletin. In 1874, he founded yet another group, the "Salesian Cooperators." While working in Turin, where the population suffered many of the ill-effects of industrialization and urbanization, he dedicated his life to the betterment and education of street children, juvenile delinquents, and other disadvantaged youth. Oltre la scuola regolare, è necessario impegnarli in altro: in lezioni di musica, di canto e di declamazione. Some employers customarily made servants and scullery-boys of the apprentices. Un legame mai reciso con i successori di Pietro. Frequentò Pio IX e Leone XIII che lo stimavano tanto. John Melchior Bosco (Italian: Giovanni Melchiorre Bosco; 16 August 1815 – 31 January 1888), popularly known as Don Bosco [ˈdɔm ˈbosko], was an Italian Roman Catholic priest, educator, and writer of the 19th century. Al tempo molti giovani si recavano a Torino, capitale del neonato Regno d’Italia , per cercare lavoro, ma finivano per diventare ladri per procurarsi da mangiare. Bosco was interrogated on several occasions, but no charges made. Don Bosco obliged them to agree to employ the boys only in their acknowledged trade. [15] The Boscos of Becchi were farmhands of the Moglian Family. Qui venne subito a contatto con il disagio dei giovani della grande città industriale, i quali spesso erano sfruttati, abbandonati dai genitori, maltrattati dalla polizia e privati di luoghi di incontro positivi. Catherine De-Mattei, The pontificates of SS Marcellinus and Marcellus, Severino, or the adventures of a young alpinist, Association of the devotees of Mary, Help of Christians, The General Councils and the Catholic Church, Angelina, or the little orphan Girl of the Appenines, Nine days consecrated to the august Mother of our Saviour, The Apparition of the Blessed Virgin at La Salette, Massimino, or the encounter of a boy with a protestant, The loveliest flower of the apostolic college, The friend of youth, a politico-religious paper (1849), 'Il Galantuomo'.

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